lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh.It is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri, the Anamalai Hills, and Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the south.The state was ranked sixth among states in India according to the Human Development Index in 2011, and is the second largest state economy in India with Its official language is Tamil, which is one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. In addition, its people have developed and continue classical arts, classical music, and classical literature.The state is also home to a number of historic buildings and religious sites including Hindu temples of Tamil architecture, historic hill stations, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, and eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites.Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule.Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.Temples such as the Meenakshi Amman Temple at Madurai and Nellaiappar Temple at Tirunelveli are the best examples of Pandyan temple architecture. They controlled the pearl fisheries along the south coast of India, between Sri Lanka and India, which produced some of the finest pearls in the known ancient world.During the 9th century, the Chola dynasty was once again revived by Vijayalaya Chola, who established Thanjavur as Chola's new capital by conquering central Tamil Nadu from Mutharaiyar and the Pandya king Varagunavarman II.
Between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD, the three Tamil kingdoms were overwhelmed by the Kalabhras.
The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centre or port city in Sangam Era.